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The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crop varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread for major crops—94 percent of planted acres for soybeans, and 88 percent for corn in 2012 (USDA-NASS 2012).

The potential exists for GE crop production to impose costs on organic and conventional non-GE production via unintended presence of GE material along the supply chain through:

• Contamination of seed stock

• Accidental cross-pollination

• Accidental co-mingling during planting, harvesting, handling, and storing of crops (Bullock and Desquilbet 2002).

Maintaining the integrity of GE-differentiated product markets relies on segregation protocols such as:

• Hybrid selection and seed purity testing

• Physical distancing during crop production

• Equipment cleaning and product segregation during processing

• GE-testing (Greene and Smith 2010).


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