The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crop varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread for major crops—94 percent of planted acres for soybeans, and 88 percent for corn in 2012 (USDA-NASS 2012).
The potential exists for GE crop production to impose costs on organic and conventional non-GE production via unintended presence of GE material along the supply chain through:
• Contamination of seed stock
• Accidental cross-pollination
• Accidental co-mingling during planting, harvesting, handling, and storing of crops (Bullock and Desquilbet 2002).
Maintaining the integrity of GE-differentiated product markets relies on segregation protocols such as:
• Hybrid selection and seed purity testing
• Physical distancing during crop production
• Equipment cleaning and product segregation during processing
• GE-testing (Greene and Smith 2010).
Adalja, A., Greene, C., Hanson,J., Ebel, R., & Barron, M. (2013, July). Adoption and coexistence of GE, conventional non-GE, and organic crops [Electronic version]. Poster presented at the joint annual meeting of AAEA & CAES. Washington, DC.