This study examined the relationships between national values, as measured by Hofstede (1983) and Schwartz (1994), and the customary size of restaurant tips in a sample of 54 nations. The results of this study indicate that the customary sizes of restaurant tips in the absence of service charges are unrelated to the customary sizes of restaurant tips given on top of service charges. They also indicate that the former tip sizes increase with Hofstede's (1983) uncertainty avoidance and masculinity scores, while the latter tip sizes decrease with Schwartz's (1994) hierarchy/egalitarianism and mastery/harmony scores.
Lynn, M., & Lynn, A. (2004). National values and tipping customs: A replication and extension [Electronic version]. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Hospitality Administration site: http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/95