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The purpose of this paper is to describe the process for developing reliable and valid measurement instruments that can be used in any hospitality industry field research setting. Many instances exist in which the researcher cannot find an adequate or appropriate existing scale to measure an important construct. In these situations it is necessary to create a new scale. Failure to carefully develop a measurement instrument can result in invalid and unintegratable data. Hence, a systematic seven-step process is outlined here to assist researchers in devising usable scales. Examples from the authors’ own research are used to illustrate some of the steps in the process


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© SAGE. Final version published as: Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B., & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 21(1), 100-120. doi:10.1177/109634809702100108

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