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Ninety-one different attempts to produce an attraction effect (involving a total of 23 product classes and 73 different decoyed choice-sets) produced only 11 reliable effects – significantly fewer than expected given the statistical power of our studies. Cross-scenario analyses indicated that use of meaningful qualitative-verbal descriptions, as well as pictorial depictions, to differentiate choice options substantially reduced the size of those effects. In fact, attraction effects were found at only chance levels using these types of stimuli. The implications of these findings for both marketing practice and research are briefly discussed.


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