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Tipping is a widespread custom in which service patrons voluntarily give money, above and beyond the price of the service, to the workers who have served them. This study found that the greater a nation’s level of neuroticism the larger the number of service professions that it is customary to tip in that country. This finding provides some support for an anthropological theory that tipping evolved as an institutionalized means of reducing service workers’ envy of their customers.


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© Elsevier. Final version published as: Lynn, M. (1994). Neuroticism and the prevalence of tipping: A cross-country study. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(1), 137-138. DOI: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90270-4. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved