The case of Carnival Cruise Lines chronicles the company’s birth and development as it redefined the leisure cruise industry. With a theme of “Fun Ships” and low pricing, Carnival appealed to a diverse market. Under the pressure of increasing competition, Carnival was challenged to refine its Fun Ships brand without damaging the considerable equity contained in that brand. In particular, as cruise lines became less differentiated in the customers’ view, Carnival sought to set itself apart with upgraded product features, service, and other guest amenities, as well as a more sophisticated brand message.
Kwortnik, R. J., Jr. (2006). Carnival Cruise Lines: Burnishing the brand [Electronic version]. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 47(3), 286-300. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Hospitality Administration site: http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/264/