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A re-analysis of two national telephone surveys found that black-white differences in awareness that it is customary to tip a percentage of the bill declined as socio-economic status increased. However, black-white differences in awareness that is customary to tip 15 to 20 percent in restaurants was unrelated to socio-economic status. The practical as well as theoretical implications of these findings are discussed along with directions for future research.


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© Elsevier. Final version published as: Lynn, M., & Williams, J. (2012). Black-white differences in beliefs about the U.S. restaurant tipping norm: Moderated by socio-economic status? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1033-1035. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.