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This article examines how the market quality of European cross-listed stocks is affected by the partial-day availability of close substitutes, i.e., shares of the same companies that are traded in their home markets but are not fully fungible with the cross-listed shares. Our findings suggest that narrower spreads and more competitive liquidity provision during overlapping trading hours reflect a significant impact from the availability of more substitutes in addition to the enhanced information environment and liquidity externalities when home markets are open. Our results also provide a richer picture of specialists’ intraday activities and offer new evidence of market integration.


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© Elsevier. Final version published as: Moulton, P. C., & Wei, L. (2009). A tale of two time zones: The impact of substitutes on cross-listed stock liquidity. Journal of Financial Markets, 12(4), 570-591. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.