Action times occur when a shift or break starts on finishes. It is found that the number of action times can be reduced or increased substantially without increasing the amount of unproductive staffing. Reducing the number of action times reduces the managerial burden of schedule implementation, while increasing the number of action times allows for more effective real-time schedule control.
Thompson, G. M. (1996). Controlling action times in daily workforce schedules. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37(2), 82-96. doi: 10.1016/0010-8804(96)83105-3