A re-analysis of two national telephone surveys found that black-white differences in awareness that it is customary to tip a percentage of the bill declined as socio-economic status increased. However, black-white differences in awareness that is customary to tip 15 to 20 percent in restaurants was unrelated to socio-economic status. The practical as well as theoretical implications of these findings are discussed along with directions for future research.
Lynn, M., & Williams, J. (2012). Black-white differences in beliefs about the U.S. restaurant tipping norm: Moderated by socio-economic status? [Electronic version]. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Hospitality Administration site: http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/19